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International sea and air transportation

International sea cargo transportation refers to the carrier in accordance with the agreement of the contract of carriage of goods by sea, with the sea ship as the means of delivery, to collect freight as remuneration, will be the shipper consignment of goods by sea from one country's port to another country's port behavior.
International maritime transport (International Ocean Freight) is the most important mode of transportation in international trade, more than two thirds of the total volume

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Ocean transportation has the advantage of high capacity, low cost of sea transportation, and well-connected shipping lanes. However, slow speed, high risk of sailing, sailing date is not easy to determine, is its shortcomings. Liner in accordance with the ship's mode of operation, international maritime transportation can be divided into liner transportation and chartered ship transportation.


Characteristics of liner transportation: (l) liner transportation has a fixed schedule, routes, ports of call and relatively fixed freight rates; (2) liner freight includes loading and unloading fees, so the liner's port loading and unloading by the ship is responsible for; (3) the number of liner cargoes is more flexible, the owner of the goods on-demand booking, especially suitable for the general general cargo and containerized cargo transportation.


Liner freight.


Freight rate of liner is stipulated by liner tariff table, including basic freight rate and various surcharges. The basic rates are divided into two categories: the traditional break-bulk rates and the containerized rates.


For general cargo, freight rates are also charged on the basis of the price of the commodity or the number of pieces. For bulk low-value cargoes, freight rates can be negotiated between the ship and cargo.


There are many kinds of surcharges in liner freight, including over-length surcharge, over-weight surcharge, surcharge for choosing port of discharge, surcharge for changing port of discharge, fuel surcharge, port congestion surcharge, bypassing surcharge, transshipment surcharge, and direct surcharge, etc. In addition to the above surcharges, containerized freight is also charged according to the commodity price or piece rate.


Container transportation costs, in addition to the above maritime transportation costs, also need to include the relevant service fees and equipment use fees.


In addition, liner companies charge freight for different commodities mixed in the same package according to the higher charge among them. The same ticket of goods, such as different packaging, its billing levels and standards are different, such as the shipper did not list the gross weight and volume of different packaging, the whole ticket of goods according to the higher charge for freight, the same bill of lading with more than two kinds of different names of goods, such as the shipper did not list the gross weight and volume, but also from the higher billing charges.


Chartered Vessel Transportation


Chartering refers to chartering a whole ship. Chartering cost is cheaper than liner, and can choose direct route, so the bulk cargo generally use chartered transportation. There are two main ways of chartering: fixed-term chartering and fixed-term chartering.


Scheduled chartering. Fixed-range chartering is based on the voyage of the chartering method, also known as program chartering. The ship must complete the cargo transportation task according to the voyage stipulated in the charter contract, and is responsible for the operation and management of the ship and its expenses during the voyage. The freight rate of the chartered vessel is generally calculated according to the quantity of goods shipped, and also according to the amount of the voyage charter. The rights and obligations of both parties to the charter are stipulated in the charter party: in the case of a voyage charter, the contract should specify whether the ship is responsible for the loading and unloading of the goods in the port. If the vessel does not bear the cost of loading and unloading, the contract should stipulate the period or rate of loading and unloading, as well as the corresponding demurrage and demobilization charges. If the charterer fails to complete the loading and unloading operation within the deadline. In order to compensate the ship for the loss of delay in sailing, a penalty, i.e. demurrage, shall be paid to the ship. If the charterer completes the loading and unloading operations ahead of schedule, the ship will pay the charterer a certain bonus, known as speedy discharge fee. Usually, demurrage is half of demurrage.


Time charter. Fixed-term chartering is a certain period of time to rent a ship for transportation, also known as time chartering, the ship should be provided in the contractual period of chartering seaworthy ships, and bear the costs associated with maintaining seaworthiness. The charterer is still allowed to dispatch the ship within the specified navigation area, but is responsible for the expenses incurred in the operation process, such as fuel charges, port charges and loading and unloading charges.




Air transportation has won a considerable market with its speedy, safe and punctual efficiency, which greatly shortens the delivery period and plays a great role in accelerating the capital turnover and circulation of the logistics supply chain. Major airlines have invested in a large number of flights to share the cake of freight transportation. But the cost of air transportation is relatively high compared to sea freight, for the high time requirements, sea and air transportation cost ratio of about 1:10.




Points of air transportation


1. Name (whether dangerous goods)

2. Weight (involving charges), volume (size and whether the bubble goods),

3. Packaging (whether wooden box, with or without pallet)

4. Destination airport (whether basic point)

5. Required time (direct flight or connecting flight)

6. Required flights (service and price differences between flights)

7. Type of bill of lading (main bill of lading and sub-bill of lading)

8. Required transportation services (customs declaration, documents on behalf of, whether customs clearance and delivery, etc.)


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Product Details

Ocean transportation has the advantage of high capacity, low cost of sea transportation, and well-connected shipping lanes. However, slow speed, high risk of sailing, sailing date is not easy to determine, is its shortcomings. Liner in accordance with the ship's mode of operation, international maritime transportation can be divided into liner transportation and chartered ship transportation.


Characteristics of liner transportation: (l) liner transportation has a fixed schedule, routes, ports of call and relatively fixed freight rates; (2) liner freight includes loading and unloading fees, so the liner's port loading and unloading by the ship is responsible for; (3) the number of liner cargoes is more flexible, the owner of the goods on-demand booking, especially suitable for the general general cargo and containerized cargo transportation.


Liner freight.


Freight rate of liner is stipulated by liner tariff table, including basic freight rate and various surcharges. The basic rates are divided into two categories: the traditional break-bulk rates and the containerized rates.


For general cargo, freight rates are also charged on the basis of the price of the commodity or the number of pieces. For bulk low-value cargoes, freight rates can be negotiated between the ship and cargo.


There are many kinds of surcharges in liner freight, including over-length surcharge, over-weight surcharge, surcharge for choosing port of discharge, surcharge for changing port of discharge, fuel surcharge, port congestion surcharge, bypassing surcharge, transshipment surcharge, and direct surcharge, etc. In addition to the above surcharges, containerized freight is also charged according to the commodity price or piece rate.


Container transportation costs, in addition to the above maritime transportation costs, also need to include the relevant service fees and equipment use fees.


In addition, liner companies charge freight for different commodities mixed in the same package according to the higher charge among them. The same ticket of goods, such as different packaging, its billing levels and standards are different, such as the shipper did not list the gross weight and volume of different packaging, the whole ticket of goods according to the higher charge for freight, the same bill of lading with more than two kinds of different names of goods, such as the shipper did not list the gross weight and volume, but also from the higher billing charges.


Chartered Vessel Transportation


Chartering refers to chartering a whole ship. Chartering cost is cheaper than liner, and can choose direct route, so the bulk cargo generally use chartered transportation. There are two main ways of chartering: fixed-term chartering and fixed-term chartering.


Scheduled chartering. Fixed-range chartering is based on the voyage of the chartering method, also known as program chartering. The ship must complete the cargo transportation task according to the voyage stipulated in the charter contract, and is responsible for the operation and management of the ship and its expenses during the voyage. The freight rate of the chartered vessel is generally calculated according to the quantity of goods shipped, and also according to the amount of the voyage charter. The rights and obligations of both parties to the charter are stipulated in the charter party: in the case of a voyage charter, the contract should specify whether the ship is responsible for the loading and unloading of the goods in the port. If the vessel does not bear the cost of loading and unloading, the contract should stipulate the period or rate of loading and unloading, as well as the corresponding demurrage and demobilization charges. If the charterer fails to complete the loading and unloading operation within the deadline. In order to compensate the ship for the loss of delay in sailing, a penalty, i.e. demurrage, shall be paid to the ship. If the charterer completes the loading and unloading operations ahead of schedule, the ship will pay the charterer a certain bonus, known as speedy discharge fee. Usually, demurrage is half of demurrage.


Time charter. Fixed-term chartering is a certain period of time to rent a ship for transportation, also known as time chartering, the ship should be provided in the contractual period of chartering seaworthy ships, and bear the costs associated with maintaining seaworthiness. The charterer is still allowed to dispatch the ship within the specified navigation area, but is responsible for the expenses incurred in the operation process, such as fuel charges, port charges and loading and unloading charges.




Air transportation has won a considerable market with its speedy, safe and punctual efficiency, which greatly shortens the delivery period and plays a great role in accelerating the capital turnover and circulation of the logistics supply chain. Major airlines have invested in a large number of flights to share the cake of freight transportation. But the cost of air transportation is relatively high compared to sea freight, for the high time requirements, sea and air transportation cost ratio of about 1:10.




Points of air transportation


1. Name (whether dangerous goods)

2. Weight (involving charges), volume (size and whether the bubble goods),

3. Packaging (whether wooden box, with or without pallet)

4. Destination airport (whether basic point)

5. Required time (direct flight or connecting flight)

6. Required flights (service and price differences between flights)

7. Type of bill of lading (main bill of lading and sub-bill of lading)

8. Required transportation services (customs declaration, documents on behalf of, whether customs clearance and delivery, etc.)


International sea and air transportation
International sea cargo transportation refers to the carrier in accordance with the agreement of the contract of carriage of goods by sea, with the sea ship as the means of delivery, to collect freight as remuneration, will be the shipper consignment of goods by sea from one country's port to another country's port behavior.
International maritime transport (International Ocean Freight) is the most important mode of transportation in international trade, more than two thirds of the total volume
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